Method and apparatus for Protecting against Tornadoes
present invention relates to storm protection devices and more particularly to a
storm protection devices for aiding in dissipating the cyclonic winds in
incipient or actual tornadoes.
of the Invention
Tornadoes are destructive weather phenomena that cause great damage to
property as well as human beings caught in their path. But, no one has yet been
able to define all the atmospheric parameters and phenomena associated with the
generation of storms and particularly those storms with accompanying tornadoes.
The phenomenon’s randomness and short duration, the danger and expense of
attempting measurement of the associated parameters of the tornado and even the
filming of tornadoes have all militated against the obtaining of sufficient data
from witch to develop any theoretical or practical ways to help mitigate the
destructive consequences of it’s actions. The scarcity of even elementary data
such as the factors of air humidity, it's ionization, and magnitude of
electrostatic charges in storm cloud, any gradients of atmospheric pressure,
temperature, and their associates special factors, and the lack of understanding
of interactions of all the factors with favor, the circumstances for the
creation of tornadoes has resulted in an inability to generate any description
of a mechanism for the phenomenon. Conventionally, the protection against
tornadoes has depended on providing shelters that will with stand the tornadic
winds. U.S. Patent 5,829,208 to Townley shows one such structure. To date, there
is nothing in the prior art that describes a method or apparatus that can be
utilized to dissipate tornadic winds or to protect existing installations from a
of the Invention
It has been found that there is a factor in the generation of the spiral
winds of the tornado that has been previously over-looked. It is the spiraling
of storm-created ionized particles in the earths owns magnetic field as well as
its electrical fields. It is of course known that lines of forces of the
earth’s magnetic field, both in the atmosphere and on the surface of the earth
are not direct horizontally, but are slanted at an angle. This angle (measured
from level) is called the magnetic inclination. There also magnetic anomalies
around the earth where the earth’s magnetic field varies considerably from
that in other areas. In the United States and especially in the central
territories of the United States, the magnitude of the earth’s magnetic field
is larger than it is on the same geographic latitudes of the Atlantic or the
The larger local values of the pitch of the magnetic fields and larger
values of field strength in comparison, for example, to the European values of
magnetic inclination of lines of force of earth magnetic field, bring about
favorable circumstances for the uprising of air spirals. It is believed that the
hypothesis of the formation of tornadoes due to the spiraling of ionized
particles is substantiated by the analysis of frequencies of tornadoes observed
in central and eastern states where the field strength as well as the magnetic
field inclinations are the largest. Thus,
in accordance with this theory, it has been found that a tornado is a form of
electrical discharge between a storm cloud and the ground. The ionized particles
are accelerated by the electric field gradient between the earth and storm
cloud. As they spiral in the earth's magnetic field these ionized air particles
form a uniform vortex with sucks in air from above the ground while creating the
strong winds at the periphery.
It now has been discovered that the forces on the ionized particles can
be lessened by a method and apparatus that reduces the magnetic field of the
earth in a localized area for which protection is desired and/or reduced the
electric field generated between the cloud and the earth.
The reduction of forces on the ionized particles result in a dissipation
of the strength of the cyclonic winds in a tornado. It is therefore an object of
the invention to provide a method and apparatus for protecting a localized area
from atornado by changing the magnitude of the magnetic field and/or the
electric field in the area to be protected.
Thus, in one aspect of the invention there
is provided apparatus comprising at least one solenoid, said solenoid having
such parameters that when energized it is operative to provide a magnetic field
strength comparable to the measured field strength of earth’s magnetic field
in a determined section of the atmosphere, said solenoid being oriented so as to
provide a component of its magnetic field diametrically opposed to that of the
earth’s magnetic field in said determined section whereby ionized particles in
said determined section are subjected to a lesser magnetic force than that
created by the earth’s magnetic field alone.
In another aspect of the invention there is provided a method for
protecting against tornadoes comprising the steps of providing as least one
solenoid in the area to be protected, said solenoid being disposed so as to
create a magnetic field in a direction opposed to the magnetic field of the
earth at said area to be protected, and energizing the solenoid to provide said
opposing magnetic field whenever there is an anticipated tornado.
In yet another aspect of the invention there is provided a method and
apparatus for reducing the strength of the electric field that arising between
the storm cloud and the ground by the application of short – circuit
electrodes via balloons or rockets.
Description of the Drawing
1 is a diagram illustrating conceptually the initial process in the formation of
2 illustrates the forces acting on an ionized air particle in a magnetic field;
3 shows the helical trajectory of the particle’s movement in the earth’s
4 is a first embodiment of a protecting device in accordance with the invention;
5 illustrates in a front view another embodiment utilizing additional solenoid
having a steel core;
6 shows a magnetic field generated by a device in accordance with the invention
utilizing two solenoids;
7 conceptually illustrates the anticipated operation of the protection device in
accordance with the invention as a tornado passes directly over;
8 conceptually illustrates the situation when a tornado passes to the side of
the protected area;
9 illustrates a device in accordance with the invention mounted on a vehicle so
that the unit may be mobile;
10 illustrates a balloon in accordance with the invention located in a silo, the
balloon being automatically fired by the tornado;
11 shows a station including a silo having a rocket and showing a grounding wire
12 is an example of a plurality of stations sited around the protected
Description of the Preferred Embodiments
1 is a conceptual diagram illustrating at 14 the initial process in the
formation of a tornado.
As defined herein, a tornado is a form of electrical discharge in the
atmosphere occurring between a storm cloud and the ground. The ionized air
particles, the carriers of the electric charge, are accelerated by a large
voltage gradient that exist between the cloud and the ground. As they move
spirally, the direction of their movement being modulated by the earth magnetic
field, the ionized air particles form a uniform vortex. The air from above the
ground is being sucked into the vortex and undergoes rapid uplifting, while the
centrifugal forces and air turbulence are manifested as strong winds at the
periphery of vortex.
At the time of vaporization a partial ionization of air, also take place.
receives positive electric charges. A sudden electric polarization also takes
place when water vapor contained in the air condenses. Precipitation of rain and
hail are the main source of the rise of large the electric differences potential
between storm cloud and ground. Violent lighting strikes in the precipitation
zone 16 and 17 entail the flow of electric current in the direction from the
surface of the earth to the clouds. The jet stream itself may be also a source
of large positive electric charge. It is believed that the differences of
electric potential, witch are accumulated in air, are a significant reason for
the creation of strong winds, because positively charged masses of air are
attracted by negatively charged air masses and vice-versa. These charged air
masses are indicated at 12 along with the arrows at 13 and 14 indicating the
initial movement of air in the electric field. In the diagram, the area of
precipitation in the form of hail is indicated at 16 and precipitation in the
form of rain is indicated at 17. The direction of movement of the storm clouds
is indicated by arrow 15. The surface of the earth, taken to be at an average
potential of zero (0) is shown at 19. The dashed lines at 20 show the area of
potential tornado creation.
It will be appreciated that a tornado is a relatively rare phenomenon. It
a tornado may occur only as a result of specific rare atmospheric occurrence
before a storm. When masses of cool air push down on positively charged layers
of hot air, electric discharges follow (lightning), both between cloud and from
cloud to the earth. However, this discharge may not always occur. For example,
between the wall of clouds at 11 and the earth there are no lightning strikes.
Under this cloud, there arises a huge electric field directed towards the
surface of the earth. The gradient of this electric field E reaches values in
the range of 150-200 kV/m. The fact of a large electric charge being held in the
atmosphere (as will be discussed later) is a main reason for the occurrence of
tornadoes. It is the main motor force of the spiral movement of air masses;
witches are directed toward the earth.
Fig. 2 illustrates the forces acting on an air particle.
Air when in motion in earth’s magnetic field begins to fall under the
laws of physics; more specifically under the Lorenz laws. From these laws it is
known that on a particle having electrical charge q in an electric field an
electrical force acts and when moving with a velocity v in a magnetic field of
magnitude B, a magnetic force F acts, whose direction is perpendicular to the
direction of movement of the particle (vector v) and also perpendicular to the
direction of lines of force of magnetic field (vector B). The fundamental
relation for these forces on a moving charge is F=Eq+qvB and its motion in
conformity with vector laws (often defined as the ”right hand rule”) is a
left circulation as it is being forced by the electric field E whose gradient
can reach values greater than 150kV/m.
It will be appreciated that the magnitude of the earth’s magnetic field
B is not large.
amounts to about 0.5 Gauss. However, the charge densities of the particles, q,
may in conductive atmospheric condition acquire very large values. That is why
even during the relatively slow initial speed v of the particles of air, there
is a determinable transverse force beginning to act.
The movement of a particle in this field, with is perpendicular to the
direction of motion, is always a circular motion. Thus, the ionized particle of
air in the magnetic field begins to move in an arc; it begins to circulate in a
whirl (helix). Looking at the top view, in Northern Hemisphere the particle will
move in a left circular direction; that is, counterclockwise. In the southern
Hemisphere, the lines of magnetic field force are oppositely directed and
therefore positively charged particles of air there will move in a right
direction, that is clockwise as viewed from the top.
As discussed earlier, the direction of earth’s magnetic field is for
the most part not perpendicular to the earth’s surface, but inclined from to
the surface at the angle. Fig. 3 shows the helix trajectory of the particle’s
movement in the earth’s magnetic field. In the diagram seen in Fig. 3, in the
Northern Hemisphere a particle of air moving downwardly, as shown at 33, in the
homogenous earth’s magnetic field indicated at 31 will move with a spiral
trajectory 34 towards the earth 35 with counterclockwise direction. This is the
source of the tornado. The process begins in the “storm cloud”, more
specifically in the wall cloud 11 seen in Fig. 1. A particle of air given a
positive electric charge, activated
a circular movement starts to accelerate. The electromagnetic force F acting
upon the particle (Fig. 2) causes the particle to be continuously accelerated.
Because of the increase of speed due to the acceleration, the force
proportionally increases also in accordance with the formula given previously.
In this state, the diameter of the spiral trajectory of the particle decreases
and the circumferential speed increases. The gradient of the electric field 32,
witch is directed towards the earth’s surface, is the main accelerator, and
with adds to the particle’s spiral movement. It will be understood from the
foregoing that a type of positive feedback arises. The larger the
circumferential speed of the particle the larger the inner force; concurrently,
the larger the inner forces the smaller the diameter of circular motion and the
faster the speed. The spiraling air
acts in the funnel of the tornado as a speeding reel of an electric engine, with
is fed by the large electric potential E that has accumulated in the air.
It will also be understood that there are inertial forces acting on a
a circle with a given velocity. The direction of inertial force acting on the
particle is opposite to that created by the magnetic field. From mechanics, it
is known that the magnitude of the centrifugal force is a function of the square
of a speed, that is, Fo=mv^2/r where m is the mass of the particle, v is its
velocity, and r is the radius of circulation of the particle. At low speeds in
the wall cloud 11 of Fig. 1, it will be appreciated that this force is not
large, but as the speed rises, its value grows rapidly. This force at a
determined speed depending on the magnitude of the electromagnetic forces will
prevent a further reduction of the spiral’s diameter. A state of equilibrium
arises whose effects determine the shape of the air spiral. Because this
centrifugal force acting on the particles causes their outward displacement, the
pressure inside of the funnel of the tornado is much lower than the pressure
outside the funnel. This lower pressure is the reason for the devastation of the
tornadoes. When the spiral reaches the surface of the earth it, sucks in
everything as if it were a huge vacuum cleaner.
It will be understood that it will also suck in electric charges at the
earth’s surface with are opposite those witch it already contains. These
negative charges can causes a sudden reduction of the large positive electric
potential of the “coat”, that is the exterior of the tornado funnel. The
reel of this “electric engine” as it touches the surface of the earth begins
to disintegrate and the elements picked up from the earth (previously charged)
era thrown outside with tremendous force. This saturation of the tornado with
negative electric charges causes the magnitude of the electromagnetic inner
force to decrease and begin to be outweighed by the centrifugal forces witch
proceeded to enlarge the diameter and distort the shape of the funnel.
Saturation of tornado with the negative particles from above the ground, entails
a slow discharge of the electric field E. Finally, there comes the point where
the “coat” breaks up. This occurs with the intrusion of air from the outside
into the inside of the funnel. At this moment, the tornado violently disappears.
To protect an area against a strike by a tornado, it has been founded
that one needs to eliminate or decrease the influence of at least one of the
factors witch is a prerequisite for its actions. One of the ways to embody this
approach would be to install very tall masts in a territory, witch would
discharge and equalize electric potential that accumulate in the atmosphere.
Construction of such steel masts of 100-200 meters in heights and 200-300 meters
apart will distort the regular magnetic field forces of earth and reduce the
large values of the electric field. This has been done locally in many areas.
Tall buildings or sky drapers, of steel construction or of ferroconcrete, are so
called “natural” devices witch protect territories from tornadoes. It been
routinely observed that tall construction protect against tornadoes so it is
known that it always happens that the tornado for “some” reason evades tall
Based on the theoretical discussion above, it has been found that a novel
and cost- effective way to protect objects from tornadoes is to locally change
the size and direction of the magnetic field of the earth.
Fig. 4 is a first embodiment of protecting devices
in accordance with the invention. The objects to be protected are, for example,
houses illustrated at 41, within a protected area.
A large circular electric winding 44 is installed at the territory to be
protected. The electric winding 44, which when fed with an appropriately
connected direct current, based on the principle of the solenoid, will produce a
magnetic field, that is oppositely directed to the earth’s magnetic field at
that area. When energized, this
large solenoid will oppose the earth’s magnetic field or change the local
magnetic field so that it is directed opposite to the vertical components of
earth’s magnetic field at that locality.
The large coil 44 of this solenoid in accordance with the invention can
be placed into the ground or it can be installed above the ground. Because of
the required number of coils (between 100-200), a large section of electric
wire, preferably No. 0 - 00, and connected to a supply voltage of magnitude ~
500V, must be properly grounded and protected against damage. It will understood
that the coil’s parameters (number of coils of conductor, its cross section,
an the like), as well as the magnitude of the electric voltage drop trough the
coil, depend on the size of the area to be protected. In “normal”
circumstances” that is, with no threat of a tornado, it is not connected to
the power source shown at 45. The
device must be switched on in the event of anticipated danger of a tornado,
suitably by means of conventional relay switches of appropriate capability as is
well known in the art (not shown). It will be appreciated that the direction of
direct current power in the coil is circulating left, as shown by the arrowhead
at 43 in Fig. 4. If the device were to be connected oppositely, the generated
magnetic field, directed in the same direction as the earth’s magnetic field,
would not only NOT protect the territory, but could also multiply the
destructive force of the tornado. Because of relatively large power requirements
and potency of the device (for diameter of coil equal 100m, the power amounts to
approximately 10 kW), turning on the device would usually be desirable only in
case of direct danger of a tornado.
Instead of placing one large solenoid, several smaller solenoids,
preferably having an iron core, may be placed around the protected territory.
Fig. 5 illustrates in a front view one embodiment utilizing such an arrangement.
On the protected area including structures 50 to be protected or on the
periphery of this area, several perpendicular electromagnets 52 of similar
construction are shown. The heights of these constructions, preferably having a
steel core, their number, strength and dispersal depend on the size and shape of
the protected area. For best results, the core of the electromagnets 52 may be
executed from transformer steel or other material having high magnetic
permeability. On each one of them there is fixed an electric coil 54. The source
of power, analogically to that shown in Fig. 4 will be batteries and/or electric
generators. The coil must be prepared to be connected to direct current
electrical power in such a way that the current will flow trough the solenoids
clockwise as viewed form the bottom. The top of each electromagnet must be
magnetic pole “N”, its base – pole “S” as indicated at 56. Similarly,
as in the case of a single solenoid, the devices are normally off. In the case
of direct danger from tornado, the solenoids (electromagnets) must be
automatically switched to connect with the power source at switched power source
indicated at 58. In addition to their primary function, the installed solenoids
will also conveniently serve to partial reduce the large values of the electric
In order to more clearly show the parameters associated with the solenoid
in accordance with the invention, the calculated data for a typical installation
might be as follows:
100 yard (300 ft)
of conductor (AWG) – No 0. Allowable current-carrying capacity to 125 Amperes
coil winding of solenoid N=50 coils.
of coil winding of the solenoid of 50 coils, derived for one conductor No 0,
voltage of power supply V=IxR; V=100A x 4.8 Ohms= 480 V
The required voltage of 480V may be provided by connecting a series of 40
accumulators (e.g. 12V batteries). The capacity of accumulators should amount to
at least 150 Amp-Hours each. This has strength 100 x 50 = 5000 Ampere-Coils and
requires power of about 5kW. These units can be installed in a set of 2,3 or
more circuit (see Table 1).
It will be appreciated that the solenoid may be constructed to have a
larger diameter, with a larger cross-section (for example conductor N0 00) and
greater power, as desired – this is only a matter of cost.
The magnetic field of an energized protection device in accordance with
the invention witch comprises two (2) of these units is illustrated in Fig. 6.
As shown, the magnitude varies as a function of height above ground level. When
4 units (4 spools with 50 coils with powered witch 480V each) are installed, the
values will double. Instead of using batteries, witch have to be periodically
charged and inspected, it may be preferable to provide direct current power
generators (e.g. similar to those that are used for electrical welding). The
required voltage to be provided by the generator is 480V and it must be capable
of providing a current of 120A
for one unit of solenoid. Since
the actual forces involved are not completely known as has been discussed
earlier, it is hard to precisely determine the required force of the device. As
presently understood, in order to dissipate a tornado of magnitude 1F (according
to line scale of Fujita), 2 units are needed the required power is also shown in
the Table 1.
Required power (kW)
largest diameter of solenoids and approx. power
75 – 100 kW
against to Fig. 6, the distribution of the magnetic field generated by the
solenoid and a graph of the resultant magnetic field as a function of height are
illustrated. The data was determined for 2 solenoid units. At 61, the area
(above solenoid) of the Earth Magnetic Field (EMF) is represented. At 62, the
dashed lines show the envelope of points at witch the magnetic field B=0 and at
63 the cross-sectional area in witch the magnetic field has an opposite
direction to that of EMF. (B negative, line magnetic field up). The data for
Fig. 6 was calculated for a solenoid of diameter 300 feet, trough witch flows
direct current of value 10,000 Ampere-Coils. ( 2 units of 5,000 A-C working
As brought out above, the operation relies on the principle that reduced
magnetic field strength will reduce the forces acting on the ionized particles
and will thereby cause the tornado to either be dispersed or to bypass the
protection area. The dispersal will happen when the funnel of the tornado moves
exactly over the solenoid. In reality, the more probable event is that the
funnel of the tornado will bypass the area of the earth’s magnetic field
changed by the solenoid. This outcome will be the produced by the
solenoid-enlarged magnetic field over the border of the protected area. Based on
the above, it will be appreciated that the funnel of the tornado will at least
partially dissipate and bypass the protected area. The tornado in the nearby
areas of the solenoid either will entirely or partially dissipate and/or will
bypass the protected territory.
The principle of operation of the device is shown in schematic
illustrations 7 and 8. In Fig. 7 is illustrated the rarer case where the
trajectory of the funnel of the tornado is directly over an energized solenoid
in accordance with the invention. As seen at 70 there is counter-clockwise
movement of air in the undisturbed funnel of a tornado. At 72, the movement of
an air particle in decreased E.M.F. is shown with enlargement of the diameter of
the funnel and a reversal of air on the exterior.
As seen at 74, there is a change of direction of mass air movement to
clockwise in the area changed by the solenoid to opposite direction of E.M.F.
and invasion of air to the inside of the funnel. So the effect is a dissolution
(dissipation) of the tornado at volume 75.
Fig. 8 illustrates the most frequent case to be expected. The undisturbed
funnel of the tornado is shown at 81. At 82 is shown the hole in the coat of the
tornado in the area of the EMF changed by the solenoid. As seen at 83 there is
invasion of air from the exterior of the tornado to its inside and its partial
or complete dissipation. The path (trajectory) of tornado if there were no
solenoid is shown in dashed lines at 84 while at 85, the change of trajectory of
movement of the no dissipated part of tornado above the protected area is
illustrated. The portion of the atmosphere where the EMF is changed by the
solenoid is shown at 86 while 87 shows the volume where the magnetic field
generated by solenoid has the opposite direction to EMF (-See the graph of Fig.
In order to obtain the maximum effects for change of the existing
direction of earth’s magnetic forces, the solenoids or electromagnets should
be placed diagonally with respect to the earth’s surface, near the angle of
electromagnetic inclination on the protected territory. For regions most prone
to tornadoes, this angle of inclination is in the range of 45-65 degrees; the
masts of electromagnets should be tilted therefore (on the Northern Hemisphere)
in the southerly direction. Instead of that, it may be preferable to arrange
electromagnets on the surface of the earth horizontally, or with small tilt in
proportion to horizontal. This embodiment is similar to the embodiment of Fig. 6
with this difference. The electromagnets are installed on the surface of land to
be protected, in the direction of south - north. The direction of electricity
should flow in the way in order to have their poles oriented opposite to the
reading of the compass. The North end (in a geographical sense) of magnet should
be the South magnetic pole ”S”, and likely geographical South end of each
electromagnet after turning on the power source, should be the North magnetic
pole “N”. It will be understood that, if necessary, all three ways may be
used in some cases to protect a territory from tornadoes.
I will also be understood that the electromagnets, preferably having an
iron core, may be installed vertically, horizontally, or inclined at an angle
seen here in an inclined direction on a vehicle or other means of transportation
91 as shown in Fig. 9 so as to be mobile and to thereby be transportable as
desired to endangered areas for the protection of larger territories at lower
cost, much like the services provided by the municipal fire department.
Hydraulic elevators 92 are arranged on the bed of the vehicle for
positioning the electromagnets and for best results are made from
non-magnetic material such as (Al, Ni). Electromagnet core 93 is preferably made
from material that has high magnetic permeability. Coil electromagnet 94 is
energized by a source of DC electricity (generator DC) 95. Brackets or other
like stabilization means well known in the art are used to stabilize the vehicle
while it is in use are shown at 96. The angle of magnetic inclination 97 is set
at the selected value for the location. It will be understood that the vehicle
91 must be positioned in a south direction. The magnetic pole ”N” must be on
top and the lower and of core must be magnetic pole “S”.
With reference to the earlier definition of a tornado, there exists a
second group of devices for the protection of territory from a tornado. The
application of these devices relies on the reduction of the large electric
field, which arises in storm environments between the wall clouds 11 (Fig. 1)
and the surface of the earth. In one embodiment, a captive balloon is released
into the atmosphere to discharge the built-up electrical potential. As seen in
Fig. 10, balloon 101 is placed in a concrete silo 102. Preferably, balloon 101
comprises several layers of surface metalized foil, such as Mylar, which has a
high strength and is durable. The balloon 101 is filled with a light gas, such
as helium. The volume of the balloon must be large enough, preferably 10 - 15
cubic meters, to create sufficient lift to rise into the atmosphere strong metal
wire 106 attached to the balloon. For best results, this metal wire is wound
into a coil 107. The lower end of this wire is attached to the base of the silo,
and is joined with the device’s grounding wire 104.
The silo is covered with a loosely placed cover 105, which is several
multiples heavier than the lift of the balloon. It is essential that the
grounding wire 104 has an extremely small electric resistance, and that it be
buried in the ground on the protected area, and preferably connected to a water
supply system to create a sufficient grounding system. For best results, the
silo 102 with balloon 101 should be installed on south-western edges of the
protected territory in rows at a distance of from 500-1000 m from it. The
operation of the stations in accordance with the invention is automatic.
That is, when the vortex of the tornado travels over the silo, the cover
105 will be torn off and balloon 101 is sucked into the air, helped by
ventilation holes 103. The balloon 101 as it rises drags behind the grounded
electric wire 106. The metalized coat of the balloon, witch has zero electric
potential to start will take in positively charged ions of the tornado vortex.
The ionization is somewhat reduced, but more importantly as the balloon
101 reaches a height in range 1-2 km, a violent electric discharge trough the
wire (in the character of a lightning strike) will take place. The electric
discharge forced by the tied balloon will induce a significant reduction of the
electric field and will therefore in accordance with the previous discussion
induces the dispersal of the tornado.
An essential part of the function of the balloon is that the whole
protected territory will gain a high positive electric potential, witch in turn
will reduce the gradient of the electric field between the cloud and the earth,
witch the effect that the tornado will skip that area. However, the conditions
may cause the tornado to reform in unprotected territory in an area where the
electric potential of the earth’s surface is negative. Taking into
consideration the possibility of failure, one station may not be sufficient,
therefore the protected territory should be “engirded” with a set of devices
witch are positioned around the protected area particularly from the south –
western side of the area in territo-ries in the northern hemisphere. For best
results, the station should be positioned in a distance of about 50 – 100
meters apart. An example of an arrangement of silos for the protection of a city
the size Oklahoma is illustrated in Fig. 12 witch will be discussed below.
Another device used to disperse the electric field is the embodiment
illustrated in Fig. 11. In a
concrete silo 110, on a leading shaft 111, a rocket 112 is installed that is
able to lift a grounded electrical wire into the air to a height in the range of
2 – 3 km. The metal wire is preferably wound inside cylinder 113. Rocket head
116 is filled with a metal powder or other electrically conductive substance
mixed with an explosive material, witch after the burn of, for example, a solid
fuel propellant that accelerates the rocket
112 as is well known in the art, the head explodes similarly as in
fireworks. The explosion of the
head creates a large volume of metal from witch electric charges will be brought
down to the earth’s surface. For best result, the silo 110 is equipped with an
opening device 122, witch opens the covering 115 by means of pull rod 121, as
well as an ignition device for
launching of the rocket. The lower end of the metal wire 118 is connected by
wire 120 to a grounding wire 114. The rocket’s
grounding wire, preferably buried in the ground to a dept of about 0.3-
0.5 m, should have a length of at least two kilometers, and should also be
connected to a water supply and electrical grounding system in the protected
area. A second preferable part of the rocket 112 is its nozzle 117 for
stabilizing its vertical track in flight. The vertical track stabilizer is
believed to be helpful in case the rocket in the tornado atmosphere changes the
track of flight to a more horizontal pitch witch might cause it to hit a
It will be appreciated that there can be one or more rockets installed in
a silo. The operation of this embodiment is analogical to that of the balloon in
the embodiment previously described, with the difference that the rocket
ignition is not automatic. Preferably, a specially trained crew, at the moment
of a tornado is directly endangering the territory would launch the rocket. As
the launched rocket penetrates into the wall cloud 11 (Fig. 1). a very strong
multiple electric discharge will take place between the cloud and the earth’s
surface via wire 118 with the accompanying discharge of the atmospheric
electrical field. In accordance
with the foregoing description of the tornado event, the reduction of the
electric field entail an immediate dispersal of the tornado. and will induce
In Fig. 12 is shown an exemplary spacing of the silos witch are placed
around the protected territory 125. For
best results, the girdle 126 is composed of 3 rows of silos in witch the
exterior stations are silos that are equipped with the balloon devices, and in
the interior the silos house the rockets. The
electric wires 127 connect the wires that ground the silos with water supply and
electric grounding system within the protected territory. It will be understood
that many other combination of the stations are possible and the invention is
not limited to the particular arrangement illustrated in Fig. 12.
is claimed is:
Apparatus comprising at least one solenoid, said solenoid having such
parameters that when energized it is operative to provide a magnetic field
having field strength comparable to the measured field strength of earth’s
magnetic field in a determined section of the atmosphere near said solenoid,
said solenoid being oriented so as to have a component of its magnetic field
diametrically opposed to that of earth’s magnetic field in said determined
section whereby ionized particles in said determined section are subjected to a
magnetic field different from that of the earth’s magnetic field alone.
The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising a switch able power source
operative to be switched connected to said solenoid for energization thereof
The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the power source is a plurality of
accumulators connected in series.
The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the accumulators are batteries.
The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the power source is a generator.
The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising an iron core disposed within
The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising a steel core disposed within
The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising a core of high permeability
disposed within the solenoid.
The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising transportation means and
wherein said solenoid is mounted on the transportation means.
A method for protecting a localized area against tornadoes comprising the
steps of providing as least one solenoid in an area to be protected, said
solenoid being disposed so as to create a magnetic field in a direction opposed
to the magnetic field of the earth at said area to be protected, and energizing
the solenoid to provide said opposing magnetic field wherever there is an
The method of claim 10 further comprising the step of mounting the
solenoid on a transportation means.
The method of claim 10 further comprising the step of providing a steel
core for said solenoid.
The method of claim 10 further comprising the step of providing a high-
magnetic permeability core for said solenoid.
Means for locally protecting against tornadoes comprising a plurality of
solenoids disposed in a predetermined manner about the area to be protected,
said solenoids having a core of high magnetic permeability, a plurality of
generator means, each of said generator means being switch ably connected to
respective solenoids, said solenoids having such parameters that when energized
they are operative to provide a magnetic field having field strength comparable
to the measured field strength of earth’s magnetic field in a determined
section of the atmosphere near said
solenoids, said solenoids being oriented so as to have a component of the
generated magnetic field diametrically opposed to that of the magnetic field in
said determined section whereby ionized particles in said determined section are
subjected to a magnetic field different from that of the earth’s magnetic
field acting alone.
The means of claim 14 wherein the cores are installed vertically.
A method for protecting a localized area against a tornado comprising the
steps of providing means for reducing electric and electromagnetic forces
operating on ionized particles in a storm, recognizing storm conditions
threatening the localized area, and in response to threatening conditions
activating said means for reducing electromagnetic forces whereby the forces are
The method of claim 16 wherein the means for reducing is a captive
balloon with upon release trails a ground wire and a grounding system, said
ground wire connecting to the grounding system.
The method of claim 17 where the balloon comprises layers of metalized
The method of claim 17 further comprising the step of placing a cover
means over said baloon for holding it captive and wherein the step of activating
the reducing means is a tornado passing over the cover means and tearing it off
to release the baloon.
The method of claim 16 wherein the means for reducing comprises a rocket
operative to carry a trailing ground wire into the atmosphere and a grounding
system, said ground wire being connected to the grounding system.
The method of claim 20 wherein the rocket includes an explosive head
comprising a mixture of explosive and electrically conducting material.
Apparatus for a localized area against tornado comprising means for
reducing electric and electromagnetic forces operating on ionized particles in a
storm, said means comprising conducting means for dissipating the electric field
generated in a storm, means for transporting the conducting means into a storm
cloud, and grounding means in said localized area, said conducting means being
connected to said grounding means whereby when said conducting means is
transported to a storm cloud the electric potential in said storm cloud is
discharged trough the grounding system.
The apparatus of claim 22 wherein the means for transportation as a
The apparatus of claim 22 wherein the means for transporting is a rocket.
Wajda; January 2000
POWROT DO STRONY GLOWNEJ